Bio-degradable fibers as an effective way of reducing the impact textiles have on the environment. Bio-degradation of fibers occurs when their constituent polymers are depolymerised, usually by the action of enzymes secreted by microorganisms. These enzymes act by hydrolyzing or oxidizing the polymer, and can work on the ends of the chains or randomly along their length. To do its work, the enzyme has to be able to bond to the fiber and gain access to sites capable of being oxidized or hydrolyzed.
The most bio-degradable fibers therefore tend to be hydrophilic, and made up of short, flexible chains with low levels of crystallization. They will often have chain backbones with oxygen or nitrogen links and/or pendant groups containing oxygen or nitrogen atoms. This description clearly fits most natural fibers and fibers made of natural polymers.
The major Bio-degradable fiber, includes Bast fibers (Flax, Hemp, Jute, Ramie, Kenaf, Abaca), Alginate Fibers (Alginate is a natural polymer that exists widely in many species of brown seaweed.), cellulose, protein and specialty biodegradable fibers, such as Lyocell Fiber (Lyocell fibers are made of the renewable raw material cellulose.), poly (lactic acid) and poly (hydroxyalkanoate). All biodegradable fibers impart Color brilliance to fabrics and garments, which remain bright and true even after repeated washes. It imparts soft handle with bouncy feel. The fabric becomes a joy to wear. Biodegradable fibers are eminently suitable for all application areas like knitwear, intimate apparel, shirting’s, trousering, dress material, bath linen, floor covering, bed linen, furnishing and industrial yarns.